2023 is not yet over and data of last two months, November and December 2023, is yet to be collated. But, a provisional report from the United Nation World Meteorological Organization confirmed that it is set to be the warmest on record. The average global temperature from Jan to Oct 2023 is 1.4°C above the pre industrial period. This is the highest during the last 174 years of observation period.
Earlier, the two warmest years of 2016 and 2020 measured 1.29°C and 1.27°C above the threshold mark. This year, June to October months have surpassed previous records for respective months by a big margin. July 2023 as such was an all time hottest on record. Despite triple dip La Nina, the period from 2015 to 2023 have been the warmest on record. Courtesy strong El Nino, year 2023 may scale new heights to become the hottest ever. El Nino has large contribution in warming the large span of Pacific Ocean and has recorded peak values in November 2023. With no signs of any immediate let up, its contribution of rising average temperature may enlist November and December as the warmest, as well.
Maximum Antarctic Sea ice extent for the year was one million square kilometers less than the previous record low. Glaciers are experiencing ‘extreme melt seasons’. Share of Carbon Dioxide is 50% higher than the pre industrial era. This is largely due to emissions on account of fossil fuel and trapping heat in the atmosphere. COP-28 is underway to deliberate contentious issues, render clarity and put a leash to ascertain accountability.